leaves the same impress on the psychological situation, irrespective of the change that has taken place in this. Our patients do not believe us when we ascribe an unconscious sense of guilt to them; in order to become even moderately intelligible to them, we have to explain that the sense of guilt expresses itself in an unconscious seeking for punishment. In many instances the analogy goes still further,. No such background as this would be available for any society similarly affected; it would have to be supplied in some other way. I am convinced that very many processes will admit of much simpler and clearer explanation if we restrict the findings of psychoanalysis in respect of the origin of the sense of guilt to the aggressive instincts. It keeps the ego in check by monitoring what the ego does and what actions it takes. The second contradiction was that the aggressive energy with which one imagined the super-ego to be endowed was, according to one view, merely a continuation of the punitive energy belonging to external authority, preserved within the mind; whereas according to another view it consisted,. In 1931 when they published a second edition, Freud added a final sentence speculating whether Eros or Death would come out as stronger in the coming years. Clinical observation, moreover, really permits us to distinguish two sources for the aggressiveness we ascribe to the super-ego, each of which in any given case may be operating predominantly, but which usually are both at work together. Neither of these descriptions goes far beneath the surface.
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The super-ego is an agency or institution in the mind whose existence we have inferred: Conscience is a function we ascribe, among others, to the superego; it consists of watching over and judging the actions and intentions of the ego, exercising the functions. There is more to societal relationships than these aim-inhibited-love friendships, and Freud even acknowledges this, but he does not expand. It is supposed to characterize the cultural process which evolves in humanity; but it has been related also to the development of the individual, and, besides this, is supposed to have revealed the secret of organic life in general. Instead of this the young are made to believe that everyone else conforms to the standard of ethics,. At that time it is the direct expression of the dread of external authority, the recognition of the tension between the ego and this latter; it is the direct derivative of the conflict between the need for parental love and the urgency towards instinctual gratification. This even seems probable, since before Hitler came to power, Freud left this last question out, and with the knowledge of things to come, who knows what else might have changed. Freud bases a good amount of the theory in this book on events that may or may not have happened 50,000 years ago with prehistoric man. Long ago he formed an ideal conception of omnipotence and omniscience which he embodied in his gods. That the upbringing of young people at the present day conceals from them the part sexuality will play in their lives is not the only reproach we are obliged to bring against.