that, as a matter of fact, no unambiguous evidence falsifying materialism has ever been produced. Moreover, the stories that Kellehear mentions do not concern what to expect when you die. Objects put in unusual places (eg, on top of the wardrobe) were never identified during out-of-body experiences. I was being pushed along by a wind, and I could kind of float. And the facts of her case strongly suggest that this is exactly what happened. However, as I noted in my reply to Tart's commentary, the answers to two further questions are crucial for ruling out normal hearing as the source of Pam's auditory recollections. Though their retrospective reports were not randomly collected, a similar incidence (13) of life reviews among NDErs was subsequently found in a more representative prospective study of NDE incidence and transformation (van Lommel. Men explain things to me, and other women, whether or not they know what theyre talking about. Taking an afterlife interpretation largely explains the transformative effects of NDEs on those who have them as well. He notes that when he examined complete NDE accounts from the rerc archives, rather than the incomplete extracts published by major near-death researchers, he found signs of temporal lobe epilepsy in a significant number of NDErs. The first NDE target identification experiment was carried out in the mid-1980s by Janice Minor Holden in the emergency room (ER each room of the coronary care unit (CCU and each room of the intensive care unit (ICU) at Lutheran General Hospital in Park Ridge.
While Ring and Cooper interpret this as evidence of a previously unknown sort of synesthetic perception 'transcending' normal human vision (224 Fox points out that more mundane sourcessuch as learning from mass media or NDE researchers that OBEs, tunnels, and lights are to be expected. The latter is exemplified by the "break-off phenomenon where disoriented pilots report a cluster of OBE-like sensations, such as "a feeling of detachment, isolation, and remoteness from their immediate surroundings" (338). Susan Blackmore and Tillman Rodabough consider at length how accurate information can be incorporated into realistic out-of-body imagery during NDEs.
"A Study of Hallucination in Normal Subjects:. Alternatively, if extensive studies fail to uncover substantial cross-cultural consistency between NDE accounts, a sociological explanation for solely Western commonalities would be required. So a given level of anoxia can impact on experience differently across individuals " emphasis mine (10). " Do 'Near-Death Experiences' Occur Only Near Death?
As the Fenwicks point out, if OBEs and NDEs are hallucinations, we should expect there to be major discrepancies between the psychological imagewhat the person sees from up there on the ceiling, which will be constructed by the brain entirely from memory; and the real. Clearly, the consistency of these reports suggests that at least these two features of the NDE are indeed cross-cultural (Kellehear 33). Recollections of Death: A Medical Investigation. With the written permission of Keith Augustine. This places her OBE at about 8:45. Hed apparently not read the book all the way to page 202 or checked the index, since Heyl was there (though his contribution was just not very significant). Even within highly consistent prototypical Western NDEs, there is wide variation in the form that NDErs' "astral bodies" take: sometimes they are mirror images of the normal physical body, other times they are balls of light or amorphous clouds, and sometimes NDErs do not even. Finally, Maria's hospital room was just above the emergency room entrance for a full three days before she had her OBE, and "she could have easily gained some sense of the traffic flow from the sounds of the ambulances coming and going" and from nighttime. For example, in the case of a person undergoing an OBE when sitting or standing or falling from a height, self-observation is possible from the front at eye-level or below it (Krishnan 23).